- Garcinina mangosteena |
The shape of the mangosteen is round, almost the size of an apple. It is believed to have originated from tropical Southeast Asia, the Sunda Islands of Indonesia and West Malaysia. Mainly found in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.
The rind (pericarp) of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a potent source of alpha mangosteen and gamma mangosteen xanthones. These xanthones have several benefits including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial properties. These antioxidants also have healing properties that assist cells damaged by free radicals while also helping the body fight degenerative infectious diseases.
ORAC Value - The antioxidant value of Mangosteen, Raw described in ORAC units is: 2,510 μ mol TE/100g. [Ref]
Mangosteen nutrition facts
Mangosteen is Highly Nutritious and rich in Powerful Antioxidants, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Effects. Research suggests that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in mangosteen may protect skin cells from damage associated with sun exposure and aging.
Delicious and juicy, mangosteen is one of the popular tropical fruits. It comprises of an impressive list of essential nutrients which required for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being.
It is moderately low in calories (63 calories per 100 g) and contains no saturated fats or cholesterol. Nonetheless, it is rich in dietary fiber (100 g provides about 13% of RDA).
Mangosteen is good source of vitamin-C and provides about 12% of RDA per 100 g. Vitamin-C is a powerful water soluble antioxidant. Consumption of fruits rich in vitamin-C helps the human body develop resistance to combat viral flu and help scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free-radicals.
Fresh fruit is a mild source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, niacin, and folates. These vitamins are acting as cofactors the help body metabolize carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
Further, it also contains a splendid amount of minerals like copper, manganese, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids and helps control heart rate, and blood pressure, thus, it offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
Mangosteen and Xanthones
Mangosteen is nature's greatest supply of xanthones. The fruit's pericarp is a high source of xanthones.
The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxyxanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8- disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostin-e, 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous system depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure.
As of 2008, over 68 xanthone-type compounds had reportedly been derived from GML. Of these, α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, garcinone E, and gartanin are more effecitve.
Research suggests that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in mangosteen may protect skin cells from damage associated with sun exposure and aging.
Mangosteen nutrition value:
|Nutrients||1 Cup (216g)|
|Total lipid (fat)||1.25 g|
Carbohydrate, by difference
|Fiber, total dietary||3.89 g|
|Calcium, Ca||25.9 mg|
|Iron, Fe||0.648 mg|
|Magnesium, Mg||28.1 mg|
|Phosphorus, P||17.3 mg|
|Potassium, K||104 mg|
|Sodium, Na||15.1 mg|
|Zinc, Zn||0.454 mg|
|Copper, Cu||0.149 mg|
|Manganese, Mn||0.22 mg|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid||6.26 mg|
|Pantothenic acid||0.069 mg|
|Vitamin B-6||0.039 mg|
|Folate, total||67 µg|
|Folic acid||0 µg|
|Sources include : USDA1|
Mangosteen benefits and side effects
The pericarps of mangosteen contain xanthones which exhibit anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial effects. The xanthones inhibit the cell growth in human colon cancer, according to some clinical trials. As per research published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, they exhibit the potential to be developed as agents to prevent cancer or can be used in combination with anti-cancer drugs for beneficial effects.
Relief from Diarrhea & Dysentery
The mangosteen fruit and rind can be effective in providing relief from stomach disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. A traditional remedy for diarrhea is steeping the fruit rind in water overnight. This decoction is given to adults and children who have chronic diarrhea. For relief from dysentery, the dried fruit and rind is powdered and taken.
It has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for many years in Southeast Asian countries. The extracts of mangosteen have anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory properties and they inhibit the release of histamine and prostaglandin which are associated with inflammation in the body. While one can certainly use it for these benefits, a study analyzing the limited scientific data, concluded that, despite the numerous health claims of mangosteen, there is insufficient evidence at this time to support the use of mangosteen-containing supplements to enhance health and for treatment of various pathophysiological illnesses.
The touted anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-allergy, and anti-oxidant properties of mangosteen may help in reducing the risk of various conditions such as skin inflammation, skin aging, eczema, allergies, and bacterial infections. Research has been carried out to ascertain the various benefits of this fruit on the skin. A study cited in the Food and Chemical Toxicology journal suggests that mangosteen has properties which can prevent skin cancer.
Mangosteen is rich in nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and xanthones which help in boosting the immune system. These nutrients protect the body from ailments that weaken the immune system.
Mangosteens are known to contain powerful antioxidants, which are useful to the immune system and the entire body. These antioxidants contain cell boosters, the aforementioned xanthones, which contain various properties that have medicinal value. This is the reason why it is deemed a healing fruit and can be used to reverse the effects of diseases. One study published in Foods Science and Nutrition hows the daily consumption of mangosteen drink improved antioxidant levels in the body.
Speeds up Healing
Mangosteen, with its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, is beneficial to expedite the healing of wounds. The leaves and bark of the tree can be mixed with other medicinal herbs and applied to the wounds for a faster recovery. The medicinal drink can be prepared by boiling the leaves and the bark of the tree.
Alleviates Menstrual Problems
Mangosteen root is traditionally thought to help in regulating the menstrual cycle in women. It also eases the uncomfortable symptoms that often occur before menstruation, and therefore make it easier for women to carry out their normal daily routine.
The bark and leaves of the mangosteen tree exhibit astringent properties and are beneficial in curing thrush or aphtha, which is a small, shallow sore at the base of the gums.
Protects Heart Health
Mangosteens are helpful in reducing the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction. Findings of a study published in the Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology indicate that mangosteen may have a cardioprotective effect on antioxidant tissue defense system and lipid peroxidation during a stroke. However, the study focused on rodents, so more scientific research focusing on a human population is required to further these claims.
Dr. Dónal O'Mathuna of The Ohio State University, US, in his book Alternative Medicine: The Christian Handbook, writes about the use of mangosteen to help with diabetes, as it is effective in managing and maintaining blood sugar levels in the body.
Incorporating mangosteen in the diet is thought to be effective in weight loss in many cultures. The various nutrients found in this tropical fruit also ensure good health and well-being.